Skip to main content

Pattern of uveitis in a referral ophthalmology center in Northeastern Thailand



To report the characteristics and epidemiology of uveitis in a university-based referral center in northeastern Thailand and review the uveitis patterns present in various regions worldwide.


A retrospective review of all medical records for new patients visiting the uveitis clinic at Srinagarind hospital, Khon Kaen University, between August 2016 and June 2021, was conducted.


A total of 522 uveitis patients were included in this study. Disease etiologies were categorized as non-infectious 35.8% (187/522), infectious 32.8% (171/522), and undetermined cause 31.4% (164/522). Specific diagnoses were established in 68.6% of cases. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) (14.2%) was identified as the most common specific diagnosis, and tuberculosis (6.7%) ranked highest among infectious causes.


Although non-infectious uveitis is observed predominantly in this region, the proportion of infectious uveitis is relatively more common than in developed countries. We have found no cause for one-third of our patients despite the utilization of PCR and serology for diagnostic purposes.


Uveitis comprises a group of ocular disorders characterized by inflammation within the eye, leading to a significant visual impairment, accounting for 5–10% of causes of legal blindness [1, 2]. The etiology of uveitis varies globally due to factors such as geographic location and demographic differences among populations. Epidemiological studies on uveitis in Thailand have, to date, primarily focused on the central, northern and southern region [3,4,5,6,7,8]. This study aims to report the patterns of uveitis at the Department of Ophthalmology, Srinagarind Hospital, a referral center for ophthalmology in the northeastern part of Thailand.

Materials and methods

A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all uveitis patients visiting the Department of Ophthalmology, Srinagarind Hospital, from August 2016 and June 2021. The study adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and received approval from the Ethics Committee of Khon Kaen University (HE611037). Inclusion criteria covered patients diagnosed with all types of uveitis. The exclusion criteria were all types of endophthalmitis (including post-operative, post-traumatic, and endogenous), episcleritis, scleritis, and peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Patient data, including age, gender, geographic location, laterality, anatomical involvement, type of uveitis, etiology, disease course, disease activity, medical and surgical treatment, visual prognosis, and complications, were extracted from medical records. Patients were anatomically classified based on the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria [9]. A comprehensive eye examination involving slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and dilated fundus examination, was conducted for all patients. Additional investigations, such as fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography, were determined by a uveitis specialist. Specific diagnoses were confirmed or strongly suspected based on clinical history, ocular findings, laboratory results, and ancillary tests, with definite diagnoses relying on the best available evidence during the study period.

Tests for infectious causes included Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test, interferon gamma releasing assay (IGRA; QuantiFERON-TB Gold test), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, toxoplasma antibody testing, toxocara antibody testing, serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific parasites (Gnathostoma spp., Angiostrongylus spp.), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test, viral antibody testing, PCR for herpes viruses, microbiological cultures, and any evidence of ongoing systemic infection at the time of uveitis onset. The diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis primarily relied on clinical findings such as retinal granuloma, tractional retinal detachment, vitreous haze and, when available, correlation with serological tests. The diagnosis of ocular parasitic infections also included the identification of parasites in any part of the eye, such as Gnathostoma spp., Angiostrongylus spp., and cysticercosis. Investigations for non-infectious etiologies encompassed anti-nuclear activity (ANA), rheumatoid factor, anti-ds-DNA, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), and human leukocyte antigen typing (HLA-B27). When necessary, we performed anterior chamber paracentesis to obtain aqueous fluid specimens. Additionally, vitreous samples were collected through diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy. The choice of ancillary tests was determined case-by-case based on clinical suspicions.

To assess visual impairment, low vision was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than 6/18 using Snellen chart but equal to or better than 3/60 in the better eye. Blindness was defined as BCVA less than 3/60 in the better eye [10]. Complication assessment included the identification of glaucoma when intraocular pressure (IOP) exceeding 21 mmHg with further evidences of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Ocular hypertension was defined as a transient IOP elevation greater than 21 mmHg without the need for IOP-lowering drugs. Ocular hypotony was characterized by an IOP lower than 6 mmHg. Secondary cataract was considered when patients developed nuclear sclerosis and/or posterior subcapsular cataracts to a greater degree than expected for their age or exhibited asymmetrical cataracts with greater severity in the affected eye for unilateral uveitis patients. Data recording and descriptive statistical analysis were performed using Microsoft Excel (version 16.16.4, Microsoft, Raymond, WA).


A total of 522 patients from the uveitis clinic were included in this study, with 51.5% (269/522) being male and 48.5% (253/522) female. The average age was 44. Unilateral diseases accounted for 48.1% (251/522) while 51.9% (271/522) of patients had uveitis bilaterally.

Anatomical classification of the 522 patients revealed that panuveitis was the most common presentation, observed in 52.3% (273/522), followed by anterior uveitis and posterior uveitis at 24.1% (126/522) and 19.0% (99/522), respectively (Table 1).

Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics by anatomical involvement

The diagnoses of all patients are detailed in Table 2. Disease etiologies were categorized as non-infectious 35.8% (187/522), infectious 32.8% (171/522), and undetermined cause 31.4% (164/522). Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (14.2%) was the most frequent cause of uveitis among the non-infectious group, followed by Behcet’s disease (9.0%) and HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (4.2%). There were three cases diagnosed with intraocular lymphoma, with two cases presenting with unilateral posterior uveitis and one case presenting with bilateral panuveitis. Coat’s disease was included in the uveitis clinic because the patient was consulted due to retinal infiltration suspected as posterior uveitis. Therefore, Coat’s disease may be categorized under the pediatric masqueraders group. Among the infectious group, ocular tuberculosis (6.7%), herpetic anterior uveitis (5.2%) and ocular toxoplasmosis (5.0%) were the most common pathogens (Table 2).

Table 2 Patient characteristics listed by anatomical site and definite diagnosis

In this study, 21 patients had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with 17 of them associated with infectious conditions: CMV retinitis (7 cases), ocular syphilis (6 cases), herpetic retinitis (2 cases), ocular tuberculosis (1 case), and ocular toxoplasmosis (1 case).

Immunomodulatory agents were prescribed for 138 patients (26.4%), including methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine A, and mycophenolate mofetil. Most patients requiring these drugs, either as monotherapy or combination therapy, were mostly diagnosed with VKH (45 patients) and Behcet’s disease (40 patients).

Visual assessment

Out of 271 patients with bilateral uveitis, blindness occurred in 27 patients (10.0%), mostly caused by VKH (9 patients). Low vision was recorded in 69 patients (25.5%), with Behcet’s disease (12 patients) being the leading cause, followed by VKH (9 patients). Unilateral uveitis led to blindness in the affected eye in 62 out of 251 patients (24.7%) with the majority caused by acute retinal necrosis (9 patients) and herpetic anterior uveitis (7 patients).


The most frequent ophthalmic complication found in this study was glaucoma, occurring in 20.9% of patients, followed by retinal detachment (6.3%) and cystoid macular edema (5.6%). Other complications included cataracts, ocular hypertension, epimacular membrane, band keratopathy, corneal decompensation, ocular hypotony, and phthisis bulbi. (Table 3)

Table 3 Complications of uveitis found in this study


This study delineates the pattern of uveitis among patients at a tertiary eye center in Northeast Thailand. Tables 4 and 5 present a comparative analysis of findings between this study and others conducted in Thailand and globally. The results indicate a slight male predominance, aligning with previous reports that demonstrated comparable numbers between genders [3,4,5,6,7,8, 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22]. The mean age of patients was 44 years, with the majority falling within the middle age range (17–60 years old), consistent with previous studies [3,4,5,6,7,8, 12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19].

Table 4 Pattern of uveitis in Thailand
Table 5 Pattern of uveitis in different countries from recent studies

Panuveitis emerged as the most prevalent anatomical location of uveitis in this study (52.3%). In contrast, anterior uveitis was the common anatomical location predominantly found in previous studies [4,5,6,7,8, 12, 13, 15, 17,18,19,20]. These findings indicate VKH as the most common specific etiology overall. This correlates with several studies from Thailand [5, 6], Japan [14], and Vietnam [23]. Notably, the number of patients with non-infectious entities exceeded those with infectious uveitis. Interestingly, the percentage of infectious uveitis was relatively high compared to reports from other countries [11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19].

Intraocular tuberculosis (IOTB), diagnosed based on the classification mentioned earlier [24], accounted for the largest number of patients in the infectious group, frequently manifesting with chorioretinitis (13 patients) and retinal vasculitis (12 patients). The finding aligns with studies by Sukavatcharin et al [7], Rajan et al [25], and Nguyen et al [23], which reported tuberculosis diagnoses in 8.6%, 8.7, and 9.0% of uveitis patients, respectively. Additional studies has highlighted tuberculosis as the most prevalent infectious pathogens, constituting 32% in Myanmar [20] and 18.5% in India [26]. Conversely, studies in other regions of Thailand reported herpetic uveitis, toxoplasmosis, or CMV uveitis as the most prevalent infectious etiologies [3,4,5,6,7,8]. In anterior uveitis patients in this study, viral infection emerged as the most common cause of inflammation, consistent with studies from central Thailand [6], Vietnam [23], Malaysia [25], and Ethiopia [27], rather than HLA-B27 or ankylosing spondylitis, which were frequently more reported in most Asian countries [3, 5, 7, 18, 21, 26, 28], except Myanmar which reported tuberculosis [20]. Toxoplasmosis was a common specific diagnosis in the posterior uveitis group, similar to reports from India [29], North Africa [12], Iraq [16], and Ethiopia [27].

Risk factors associated with infectious uveitis cases depend on the infectious etiologies involved. Given that Thailand is an endemic area for tuberculosis infection, it is considered one of the risk factors for IOTB, along with documented exposure to tuberculosis and clinical evidence of extraocular tuberculosis manifestations. Additionally, most patients with CMV retinitis were either known cases of HIV infection or were immunocompromised. Patients with poor personal and community hygiene, or those who consume contaminated/raw food products, are at risk for ocular parasitic infections.

Unlike studies conducted in other regions of Thailand, this study found panuveitis to be the most common anatomical location. Regarding etiology, infectious causes accounted for 32.8%, with IOTB being the most common specific diagnosis at 6.7%. Compared to other regions, northeastern Thailand showed differences in both clinical presentation and etiology, with a higher prevalence of panuveitis and TB-associated uveitis. Further details regarding studies conducted in other regions of Thailand are listed in Table 4.

It is noteworthy that nearly one-third (31.4%) of the patients in this study have unspecified diagnoses of their intraocular inflammation. The prevalence of this subgroup of patients varies significantly among studies, ranging from as low as 13% in a Thai study [3] to as high as 86.1% in a report from Sweden [30]. Recent research indicates that in the era of PCR, an increasing number of uveitis cases with undetermined etiology are obtaining specific diagnoses through aqueous or vitreous specimen samplings, particularly in cases of infectious etiologies such as viral and toxoplasma infection [31, 32]. Despite a report of low diagnostic utility in one study [33], these positive outcomes have the potential to alter treatment regimens, leading to treatment success [31, 32]. We believe that the availability of PCR and deep sequencing technique will decrease the proportion of patients with idiopathic uveitis.

The most frequent ocular complication in this study was glaucoma, occurring in approximately one-fifth of the patients, a figure comparable to a study from central Thailand [8]. Another Thai study reported cataract as the most common uveitis sequelae [6]. In our clinical practice, cataract grading is subjectively determined by each ophthalmologist and may vary between visits. Therefore, we acknowledge that cataracts may be underestimated as a complication of uveitis.

However, the study has limitations, notably the potential under-recording of CMV retinitis patients as only 21 HIV-infected patients were included. Additionally, cataracts might be underreported as a uveitis complication due to the cross-sectional study design. Long-term follow-up is suggested to accurately determine the incidence of secondary cataracts. Finally, given that our hospital serves as the tertiary uveitis referral center in northeastern Thailand, the majority of our patients were referred from other hospitals. Consequently, the epidemiological data presented in this study may not be directly comparable to findings from smaller-scale healthcare institutions or different geographical regions.

In conclusion, panuveitis predominated among patients in this study. Tuberculosis was the most frequent infectious cause, while VKH was the most common etiology among non-infectious uveitis patients. Glaucoma was a common association with uveitis in this study. Although non-infectious uveitis is observed predominantly in this region, the proportion of infectious uveitis is relatively more common than in developed countries.

Data availability

The datasets used and analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author, WL, on reasonable request.


  1. Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM (2010) Uveitis: fundamentals and clinical practice, 4 edn. Mosby, Edinburgh, p 433. Expert consult. Online and print)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Wakefield D, Chang JH (2005) Epidemiology of Uveitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin 45(2):1–13

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Pathanapitoon K, Kunavisarut P, Ausayakhun S, Sirirungsi W, Rothova A (2008) Uveitis in a tertiary ophthalmology centre in Thailand. Br J Ophthalmol 92(4):474–478

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Kongyai N, Pathanapitoon K, Sirirungsi W, Kunavisarut P, de Groot-Mijnes JDF, Rothova A (2012) Infectious causes of posterior uveitis and panuveitis in Thailand. Jpn J Ophthalmol 56(4):390–395

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Sittivarakul W, Bhurayanontachai P, Ratanasukon M (2013) Pattern of Uveitis in a University-based Referral Center in Southern Thailand. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 21(1):53–60

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Silpa-archa S, Noonpradej S, Amphornphruet A (2015) Pattern of Uveitis in a Referral Ophthalmology Center in the Central District of Thailand. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 23(4):320–328

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Sukavatcharin S, Kijdaoroong O, Lekhanont K, Arj-Ong Vallipakorn S (2017) Pattern of Uveitis in a Tertiary Ophthalmology Center in Thailand. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S94–S99

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Keorochana N (2020) Pattern and outcome of Uveitis in a Tertiary Military Hospital in Thailand. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 28(3):424–432

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. The Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group. Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature for Reporting Clinical Data. Results of the First International Workshop. Am J Ophthalmol (2005) ;140(3):509–16

  10. World Health Organization Blindness and vision impairment [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 May 29].

  11. Rodriguez A (1996) Referral patterns of Uveitis in a Tertiary Eye Care Center. Arch Ophthalmol 114(5):593

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Khairallah M, Yahia SB, Ladjimi A, Messaoud R, Zaouali S, Attia S et al (2007) Pattern of uveitis in a referral centre in Tunisia, North Africa. Eye 21(1):33–39

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Rathinam S, Namperumalsamy P (2007) Global variation and pattern changes in epidemiology of uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol 55(3):173

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Kitamei H, Kitaichi N, Namba K, Kotake S, Goda C, Kitamura M et al (2009) Clinical features of intraocular inflammation in Hokkaido, Japan. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 87(4):424–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Acharya NR, Tham VM, Esterberg E, Borkar DS, Parker JV, Vinoya AC et al (2013) Incidence and prevalence of Uveitis: results from the Pacific ocular inflammation study. JAMA Ophthalmol 131(11):1405

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Al-Shakarchi F (2014) Pattern of uveitis at a referral center in Iraq. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 21(4):291

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Luca C, Raffaella A, Sylvia M, Valentina M, Fabiana V, Marco C et al (2017) Changes in patterns of uveitis at a tertiary referral center in Northern Italy: analysis of 990 consecutive cases. Int Ophthalmol [Internet]. Jan 9 [cited 2021 May 29];

  18. Rahman Z, Ahsan Z, Rahman NA, Dutta Majumder P (2018) Pattern of Uveitis in a Referral Hospital in Bangladesh. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 26(6):893–896

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Abd El Latif E, Ammar H (2019) Uveitis Referral Pattern in Upper and Lower Egypt. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 27(6):875–882

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Win MZA, Win T, Myint S, Shwe T, Sandar H (2017) Epidemiology of Uveitis in a Tertiary Eye Center in Myanmar. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S69–74

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Singh R, Gupta V, Gupta A (2004) Pattern of Uveitis in a Referral Eye Clinic in North India. INDIAN J Ophthalmol 52(2):5

    Google Scholar 

  22. Smit RLMJ, Baarsma GS, de Vries J (1993) Classification of 750 consecutive uveitis patients in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital. Int Ophthalmol 17(2):71–76

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Nguyen M, Siak J, Chee SP, Diem VQH (2017) The spectrum of Uveitis in Southern Vietnam. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S100–S106

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Gupta A, Sharma A, Bansal R, Sharma K (2015) Classification of intraocular tuberculosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 23(1):7–13

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Rajan RS, Mohamed SO, Salowi MA, Malaysian Uveitis Study Group, Jeffrey S, Ibrahim FI et al (2022) Demography and clinical pattern of newly diagnosed uveitis patients in Malaysia. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 12(1):28

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Pandurangan S, Samanta R, Kumawat D, Sood G, Devi T, Agrawal A (2022) Pattern of uveitis from a tertiary eye care center in himalayan belt of North India. Indian J Ophthalmol 70(5):1642

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Solomon L, Tsegaw A (2022) Pattern of Uveitis at a Tertiary Eye Care and Training Center, North-West Ethiopia. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 30(7–8):1848–1852

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Biswas J, Kharel R, Multani P (eds) (2018) Changing uveitis patterns in South India - Comparison between two decades. Indian J Ophthalmol. ;66(4):524

  29. Biswas J, Narain S, Das D, Ganesh SK Pattern of uveitis in a referral uveitis clinic in India. Int Ophthalmol [Internet]. 1997 [cited 2021 May 30];20(4).

  30. Bro T, Tallstedt L (2020) Epidemiology of uveitis in a region of southern Sweden. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 98(1):32–35

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Harper TW, Miller D, Schiffman JC, Davis JL (2009) Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Aqueous and vitreous specimens in the diagnosis of posterior segment infectious uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol 147(1):140–147e2

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Chronopoulos A, Roquelaure D, Souteyrand G, Seebach JD, Schutz JS, Thumann G (2016) Aqueous humor polymerase chain reaction in uveitis – utility and safety. BMC Ophthalmol 16(1):189

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Anwar Z, Galor A, Albini TA, Miller D, Perez V, Davis JL (2013) The diagnostic utility of Anterior Chamber Paracentesis with polymerase chain reaction in Anterior Uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol 155(5):781–786e2

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Alarfaj G, Alahmadi G, Alabdullah H, Al-Khars W, Al-Hammad F (2023) Pattern of Uveitis at a Tertiary Eye Hospital in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and comparison with local literature. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 31(9):1837–1841

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Alawneh KM, Saleh OA, Smadi MM, Ababneh FK, Ali Mahmoud IH, Smadi AM et al (2023) Pattern of Uveitis in a Tertiary Hospital in North Jordan and the Impact of Behcet’s Disease. Panos G, editor. J Ophthalmol. ;2023:1–6

  36. Kalogeropoulos D, Asproudis I, Stefaniotou M, Moschos MM, Kozobolis VP, Voulgari PV et al (2023) The large Hellenic Study of Uveitis: epidemiology, etiologic factors and classification. Int Ophthalmol 43(10):3633–3650

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Suzuki T, Kaburaki T, Tanaka R, Shirahama S, Komae K, Nakahara H et al (2021) Incidence and changing patterns of uveitis in Central Tokyo. Int Ophthalmol 41(7):2377–2388

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. JOIS (Japanese Ocular Inflammation Society) Uveitis Survey Working Group, Sonoda KH, Hasegawa E, Namba K, Okada AA, Ohguro N et al (2021) Epidemiology of uveitis in Japan: a 2016 retrospective nationwide survey. Jpn J Ophthalmol 65(2):184–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Hermann L, Falcão-Reis F, Figueira L (2021) Epidemiology of Uveitis in a tertiary care centre in Portugal. Semin Ophthalmol 36(1–2):51–57

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Hao T, Yang L, Li B, Chen X, Li D, Liu X (2021) Epidemiology of 2000 Chinese uveitis patients from Northeast China. Br J Ophthalmol 105(3):317–321

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. García-Aparicio A, Alonso Martín L, López Lancho R, Quirós Zamorano R, Del Olmo Perez L, Sánchez Fernández S et al (2021) Epidemiology of Uveitis in a Spanish Region: prevalence and etiology. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 28(3):227–236

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Abdelwareth Mohammed A, Soliman MM, Osman AA, El-Zanaty RT (2021) Patterns of Uveitis in Egypt. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 29(5):1007–1016

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Tolesa K, Abateneh A, Kempen JH, Gelaw Y (2020) Patterns of Uveitis among patients attending Jimma University Department of Ophthalmology, Jimma, Ethiopia. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 28(7):1109–1115

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Borde P, Priyanka, Kumar K, Takkar B, Sharma B (2020) Pattern of uveitis in a tertiary eye care center of central India: results of a prospective patient database over a period of two years. Indian J Ophthalmol 68(3):476

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Hart CT, Zhu EY, Crock C, Rogers SL, Lim LL (2019) Epidemiology of uveitis in urban Australia. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. ;ceo.13517.

  46. Gray C, Quill S, Compton M, McAvoy C, Williams M (2019) Epidemiology of Adult Uveitis in a Northern Ireland Tertiary Referral Centre. ;4

  47. Shirahama S, Kaburaki T, Nakahara H, Tanaka R, Takamoto M, Fujino Y et al (2018) Epidemiology of uveitis (2013–2015) and changes in the patterns of uveitis (2004–2015) in the central Tokyo area: a retrospective study. BMC Ophthalmol 18(1):189

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. Hosseini S, Shoeibi N, Ebrahimi R, Ghasemi M (2018) Patterns of uveitis at a tertiary referral center in northeastern Iran. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 13(2):138

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. Siak J, Kumaradas M, Chee SP (2017) The pattern of Uveitis in Sri Lanka. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S63–S68

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Rautenbach W, Steffen J, Smit D, Lecuona K, Esterhuizen T (2017) Patterns of Uveitis at Two University-Based Referral Centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 27(6):868–874

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Abaño JM, Galvante PR, Siopongco P, Dans K, Lopez J (2017) Review of epidemiology of Uveitis in Asia: pattern of Uveitis in a Tertiary Hospital in the Philippines. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S75–80

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Dogra M, Singh R, Agarwal A, Sharma A, Singh SR, Gautam N et al (2017) Epidemiology of Uveitis in a tertiary-care Referral Institute in North India. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S46–53

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Siak J, Jansen A, Waduthantri S, Teoh CS, Jap A, Chee SP (2016) The pattern of Uveitis among Chinese, Malays, and indians in Singapore. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S81–93

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Gao F, Zhao C, Cheng G, Pei M, Liu X, Wang M et al (2016) Clinical patterns of Uveitis in a Tertiary Center in North China. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 25(sup1):S1–7

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Jones NP (2015) The Manchester Uveitis Clinic: the first 3000 patients—epidemiology and Casemix. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 23(2):118–126

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study support was a grant from the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.


This study support was a grant from the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand (Grant Number IN61248). This funding supports the publication fee and language editing.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All authors contributed to the design and implementation of the research. T.W. and W.C. collected the data.T.W., W.C. and W.L. wrote the main manuscript text and tables. All authors analyzed the results and reviewed the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wipada Laovirojjanakul.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and received approval from the Ethics Committee of Khon Kaen University (HE611037). In this research study, consent is waived due to the retrospective nature of the data collection and analysis. All patient information is anonymized and de-identified to ensure confidentiality. This study adheres to ethical guidelines and regulations regarding the use of medical records for research purposes.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wannapanich, T., Chuenchaem, W., Luanratanakorn, P. et al. Pattern of uveitis in a referral ophthalmology center in Northeastern Thailand. J Ophthal Inflamm Infect 14, 23 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: