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Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of Nocardia Keratitis Cases (2014–2021)

From: Nocardia keratitis: amikacin nonsusceptibility, risk factors, and treatment outcomes

Case Age/Sex Risk Factors Days to Presentation Presenting Visual Acuity Presentation Days to Resolution Last Follow-up Visual Acuity Species Topical Steroid Use
1 49/F Contact lens wear 5 20/20 1.4 mm corneal epithelial defect w/ underlying infiltrate 19 20/20 Nocardia beijingensis/ pneumoniae/araoensis No
2 24/F Contact lens wear; trauma 14 20/25 Inferior patchy infiltrate 5 mm × 2.5 mm with patchy overlying corneal epithelial defects 56 20/20 Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
3 64/M Contact lens wear (BCL) 14 No Light Perception Central 1.6 mm × 1.6 mm white chalky infiltrate Lost to Follow Up No Light Perception Nocardia testacea Yes
4 20/F Contact lens wear 19 20/70 2.2 mm × 2.2 mm inferonasal round patch of irregular multifocal white infiltrates, minimal corneal thinning, irregular overlying punctate corneal staining, no dendrites 54 20/25 Nocardia beijingensis No
5 25/M Contact lens wear 10 20/40–2 1 mm × 1.4 mm white fluffy opacity with irregular borders; satellite sub 1 mm round lesion, no staining, no neovascularization 44 20/70 Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
6 21/M Contact lens wear 14 20/30 Irregular epithelium with pseudodendritic appearance 5 mm non-continuously, scattered anterior stromal infiltrate with pannus 39 20/40–1 Nocardia amikacinitolerans Yes
7 66/M Trauma 7 0.5/200 2 mm × 2 mm corneal ulcer with corneal epithelial defect and Descemet’s folds 20 0.5/200 Nocardia harenae Yes
8 55/M Contact lens wear (soft); trauma 10 20/25 Inferior soupy 1.5 mm circular ulcer Lost to Follow Up Lost to Follow Up Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
9 56/F Contact lens wear 5 20/70 7 discrete, round corneal epithelial defects with anterior stromal infiltrate underlying 6 20/40 Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
10 19/M Trauma 3 20/20 ~ 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm patchy infiltrate, edges are more opaque and not contiguous, focal mild Descemet’s folds, surrounding infiltrate looks dense 49 20/20 Nocardia farcinica No
11 24/M Contact lens wear 70 20/30 2+ infiltrate, 4.5 mm × 2 mm ring infiltrate, no hypopyon 45 20/30 Nocardia beijingensis/ pneumoniae No
12 38/M Contact lens wear (soft) 13 20/400 Corneal epithelial defect 2 mm × 3 mm, questionable infiltrate on borders, no satellite (suspected HSV keratitis), corneal epithelial defect with neovascular limbal vessels. Central haze and infiltrate, mild punctate stain 190 20/30 Nocardia arthritidis Yes
13 16/M Contact lens wear 14 20/30 2.5 mm clusters of superficial infiltrates without thinning 43 20/25 Nocardia amikacinitolerans Yes
14 52/M Contact lens wear 30 20/20 Ring infiltrate with central haze 64 20/20 Nocardia veterana Yes
15 30/M Contact lens wear 10 20/25 Large lesion with raised edges and scattered staining 47 20/20 Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
16 21/M Contact lens wear 17 20/30 4.6 mm × 4.4 mm area of stromal infiltrate with discrete white opacities, white ring at the border 360 that stains, otherwise no staining. Some enlarged corneal nerves. No endothelial plaque 137 20/25 Nocardia amikacinitolerans Yes
17 17/M Contact lens wear (soft) 5 20/30 1 mm ×1 mm ulcer with small infiltrate at margin of lesion and overlying epithelial defect 9 20/20 Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
18 52/F Contact lens wear 4 20/20 Inferotemporal, inferior and superior pinpoint infiltrates, very pinpoint corneal epithelial defect 50 20/20 Nocardia arthritidis Yes
19 36/F Contact lens wear 10 20/25 + 1 Central corneal ulcer, 1.5 mm × 1.6 mm, with 25% thinning, underlying Descemet’s folds, diffuse epithelial edema, peripheral staining of ulcer edges Lost to Follow Up 20/25–2 Nocardia amikacinitolerans/ beijingensis Yes
20 35/M Contact lens wear 9 20/400 Pannus, multiple small infiltrates 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm with overlaying corneal epithelial defect arranged roughly in a circle (nonconfluent), no dendrites 134 20/100 Nocardia asteroides complex No
21 27/M Contact lens wear 14 20/100 1 mm × 1 mm with infiltrate 7 20/80 Nocardia endophytica Yes
22 16/M Contact lens wear Not Available 20/300 2.3 mm × 2.4 mm superficial corneal lesion, with pseudo dendrites emanating from the center of the lesion 49 20/20 Nocardia beijingensis Yes
23 23/F Contact lens wear 7 20/25 2.9 mm × 2.1 mm infiltrate concentrated on periphery of lesion. Scattered small corneal epithelial defects around periphery of lesion. Minimal cornea edema surrounding. 25 20/40 Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
24 56/M Trauma 7 20/40 Dendriform corneal epithelial defect with underlying opacity outside visual axis < 1 mm in size 16 20/50 Nocardia amikacinitolerans No
25 38/F Contact lens wear 7 20/30–2 1.8 mm epithelial defect with anterior stromal infiltrate at edges and surrounding haze. No thinning 3 20/40 Nocardia bhagyanarayanae No
26 54/M Contact lens wear 7 20/70 Not available 51 20/40 Nocardia beijingensis Yes