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Table 3 Ocular Manifestations of Antiphospholipid Syndrome

From: Current concepts in the diagnosis and management of antiphospholipid syndrome and ocular manifestations

Anterior Segment Manifestations:
 • Conjunctivitis sicca
 • Conjunctival vascular telangiectasias and microaneurysms
 • Punctate epithelial keratopathy
 • Limbal keratitis
 • Iritis
 • Episcleritis
 • Scleritis
Posterior Segment Manifestations:
 • Retinal microvascular occlusions
 • Central retinal vein occlusion
 • Central retinal artery occlusion
 • Branched retinal vein occlusion
 • Branched retinal artery occlusion
 • Choroidal infarction
 • Cilioretinal infarction
 • Vitritis
 • Retinal vasculitis
 • Serpiginous like choroidopathy
 • Frosted branch angiitis
 • Posterior scleritis
Neuro-ophthalmologic Manifestations:
 • Ischemic optic neuropathy
 • Ophthalmoplegia
 • Ischemic infarcts of visual pathway