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Table 5 Clinical summary of endogenous endophthalmitis in the current study

From: Endogenous endophthalmitis: a 9-year retrospective study at a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia

Case Age/sex/eye Systemic risk factors Initial VA Culture Organism Source of infection Systemic antibiotics/antifungal IVT abk/antifungal Vitrectomy Final VA
Blood Other body fluids Vitreous
1 49/M/R CF + + Sputum Acinetobacter sp. Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/18
2 76/F/R PL + Skin Candida albicans Skin infection Fluconazole Yes Yes NPL
3 49/M/L DM 4/60 + Skin Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Unasyn Yes No 6/36
4 46/F/L NAV + Sputum Acinetobacter sp. Lung infection Ceftriaxone, sulperazone Yes No NAV
5 39/F/L Leukemia 6/36 Amphotericin, fluconazole Yes yes 6/9
6 71/M/L CF + Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Cefuroxime Yes No 6/24
7 56/F/R DM NPL Lung infection Ciprofloxacin Yes No NPL
8 56/M/L Leukemia 6/60 + Enterobacter intermedius Vancomycin, moxifloxacin Yes No HM
9 26/M/R 6/36 + Not done Staphylococcus aureus IE Cloxacillin, gentamicin No No 6/36
10 26/M/L 6/9 + Not done Staphylococcus aureus IE Cloxacillin, gentamicin No No 6/6
11 61/M/R DM CF + + Urine Candida albicans UTI Fluconazole, voriconazole Yes Yes 6/9
12 61/M/L DM 6/36 + + Urine Candida albicans UTI Fluconazole, voriconazole Yes Yes 6/9
13 60/M/R DM PL + Liver, + sputum Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, metronidazole Yes Yes PL
14 60/M/L DM PL + Liver, + sputum Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, metronidazole Yes No NPL
15 49/M/R DM HM + Urine Staphylococcus aureus DFU Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
16 49/M/L DM HM + Urine Staphylococcus aureus DFU Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes NPL
17 52/F/L DM CF Ciprofloxacin, vancomycin Yes No CF
18 57/M/L DM, renal failure CF + Infected catheter + Pseudomonas aeruginosa DFU Ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, meropenem Yes Yes NPL
19 38/F/L DM HM HPB infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes HM
20 71/F/R DM CF + Staphylococcus coagulase -ve Lung infection Cefuroxime Yes No 6/60
21 49/F/L Renal failure on steroid CF Fluconazole Yes Yes 6/12
22 68/M/L DM, malignancy 6/12 + Sputum Not done Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung infection Ceftriaxone, cefuroxime No No 6/9
23 56/M/L DM, renal failure, hydronephrosis 4/60 + Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Cloxacillin Yes No 4/60
24 30/F/R DM PL + Urine + Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Vancomycin, ceftazidime Yes Yes PL
25 65/F/R 6/60 UTI NAV Yes Yes 6/24
26 19/F/R SLE with lupus nephritis, on steroid 6/6 + Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Vancomycin Yes No 6/18
27 75/F/R DM 6/18 + Sputum Not done Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Ciprofloxacin No No 6/24
28 75/F/L DM CF + Sputum Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes PL
29 51/F/R DM HM + HVS Candida albicans Fluconazole Yes Yes 6/9
30 53/F/L HM + Staphylococcus aureus Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
31 49/M/L DM HM NAV NAV NAV HPB infection NAV Yes Yes CF
32 19/M/R HM Not done Meningitis Ciprofloxacin Yes No NAV
33 65/F/L CNS lymphoma CF Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
34 77/M/R CF Ciprofloxacin, fluconazole Yes Yes 6/36
35 27/F/R 6/24 Not done Lung infection NAV No No 6/9
36 27/F/L 6/24 Not done Lung infection NAV No No 6/9
37 56/F/R 3/60 + Not done Staphylococcus aureus UTI C-penicillin, unasyn No No 6/9
38 62/M/R DM 6/12 + + Urine Not done Streptococcus sp. UTI Piperacillin-tazobactam Yes No 6/9
39 62/M/L DM PL + + Urine Streptococcus sp. UTI Piperacillin-tazobactam Yes No 6/18
40 34/M/R Renal failure HM + Urine NAV Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Sulperazone Yes No 3/60
41 63/M/L DM CF + Sputum Not done Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Trimethoprime, sulphamethoxazole No No CF
42 30/F/R 6/60 Skin infection Cloxacillin Yes No 6/6
43 30/F/L 6/24 Not done Skin infection Cloxacillin Yes No 6/6
44 61/F/R DM, sigmoid colon carcinoma CF Infected catheter Ciprofloxacin, fluconazole Yes Yes 6/36
45 40/M/L HM HPB infection Ciprofloxacin, meropenem Yes Yes NPL
46 53/M/R DM HM Lung infection Cefoperazone Yes No 6/60
47 53/M/L DM HM Lung infection Ceftriaxone Yes No HM
48 57/M/R DM HM + Staphylococcus aureus UTI Vancomycin Yes Yes HM
49 57/M/L DM 3/60 + Staphylococcus aureus UTI Vancomycin Yes Yes NPL
50 70/M/R DM, hydronephrosis HM + Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Cloxacillin, gentamicin Yes No 6/18
51 70/M/L DM, hydronephrosis HM + Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Cloxacillin, gentamicin Yes No CF
52 19/M/L Takayashu arteritis, renal failure on steroid 2/60 Ciprofoxacin, ceftazidime Yes No 6/18
53 56/F/R DM 6/18 + + Liver Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Cefuroxime Yes No 6/18
54 56/M/R DM HM + MRSA Infected catheter Ciprofloxacin Yes No CF
55 56/M/L DM CF + Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Ceftazidime Yes No NPL
56 57/M/R CF Ciprofloxacin Yes No 6/12
57 57/M/L 6/12 Not done Ciprofloxacin Yes No 6/12
58 38/F/L 6/9 + Urine Escherichia coli UTI Ceftazidime No No 6/9
59 55/M/R DM CF + Infected catheter Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Ceftriaxone Yes No CF
60 7/M/R Leukemia 6/36 + Infected catheter Fungal* Septic arthritis Itraconazole Yes Yes 6/9
61 42/F/R CF + Bukholderia pseudomallei Ciprofloxacin Yes No 6/24
62 63/F/R DM NAV + + Urine/infected catheter Not done Klebsiella pneumonia Skin infection Ciprofloxacin No No NPL
63 71/F/L HM NAV Lung infection Ciprofloxacin NAV NAV NAV
64 22/F/L Leukemia 6/24 + Not done Fungal* Voriconazole No No 6/18
65 45/M/L DM, renal failure NPL + + Infected catheter Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Cloxacillin Yes No NPL
66 48/M/R DM CF + Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Ceftriaxone, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid Yes Yes 6/60
67 31/M/L CF Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/6
68 54/M/L 6/60 + + Sputum, CSF + Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Ceftriaxone, imipenem Yes No NPL
69 55/M/R DM, renal failure HM + + Infected catheter Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/60
70 55/M/L DM, renal failure HM + + Infected catheter Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/36
71 14/F/L 6/36 Not done Ceftazidime, trimethoprime, sulphamethoxazole No No 6/18
72 42/F/L 6/60 HPB infection Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime Yes Yes CF
73 30/F/R 6/12 + HVS Steroptococcus sp. Genital infection c-penicillin Yes No 6/12
74 67/F/L DM HM Lung infection Ceftazidime Yes No NAV
75 65/M/L CF + Liver Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Ciprofloxacin, imipenem Yes Yes CF
76 34/F/R Leukemia PL + Candida tropicalis Voriconazole Yes No NPL
77 34/F/L Leukemia CF + Candida tropicalis Voriconazole Yes Yes 6/60
78 58/M/R DM, renal failure NPL + + Urine + Pseudomonas aeruginosa UTI Ciprofloxacin, metronidazole No No NPL
79 55/F/R DM 6/60 + + Bukholderia cepacia Meningitis Ceftazidime Yes No 6/36
80 25/M/L PL + + Steroptococcus sp. Cloxacillin Yes Yes NPL
81 48/F/L 6/60 Ceftazidime Yes No 6/18
82 52/F/L DM CF + + Urine Pseudomonas aeruginosa UTI Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
83 55/F/L DM HM + Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin Yes Yes CF
84 74/M/L DM, renal carcinoma CF Skin infection Ciprofloxacin, fluconazole Yes Yes 6/24
85 37/F/R DM HM + Lung infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 5/60
86 66/F/R DM PL + Infected catheter + Klebsiella pneumonia Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
87 66/F/L DM PL + Infected catheter + Klebsiella pneumonia Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes No CF
88 50/F/R DM HM + Staphylococcus coagulase -ve UTI Ciprofloxacin Yes No 6/9
89 65/M/R DM, alcoholic liver disease CF + Urine Candida albicans HPB infection Fluconazole Yes Yes CF
90 65/M/L DM, alcoholic liver disease CF + Urine Candida albicans HPB infection Fluconazole Yes Yes 3/60
91 49/F/L DM 6/9 Skin infection Ciprofloxacin, fluconazole Yes Yes HM
92 41/F/R Leukemia 6/7.5 + Not done Candida tropicalis Voriconazole Yes No 6/9
93 41/F/L Leukemia 6/60 + Candida tropicalis Voriconazole Yes No 6/18
94 58/M/R DM, liver disease 6/36 Ceftazidime Yes No 6/9
95 55/F/R Auto-immune hepatitis on steroid and immunosuppressant CF Ciprofloxacin Yes No 6/12
96 81/M/R HM Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/12
97 32/F/R Leukemia 6/24 + Xylariaceae sp. Voriconazole Yes Yes CF
98 32/F/L Leukemia 6/12 Voriconazole Yes Yes 6/12
99 63/F/R HM + Staphylococcus coagulase -ve Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/9
100 54/M/L DM, renal failure PL + + Infected catheter + Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid Yes No NPL
101 46/F/R DM HM + Penicillium sp. Amphotericin, fluconazole Yes Yes CF
102 64/M/L DM, rectal carcinoma PL Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes HM
103 66/M/L DM 6/24 + + Mycoplasma pneumonia Lung infection Ciprofloxacin, azithromycin Yes Yes 6/9
104 59/F/L DM, renal failure HM Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
105 70/M/R DM PL + Penicillium sp. Itraconazole Yes Yes 6/36
106 41/F/R DM HM Lung infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes PL
107 67/M/L DM 6/9 + + Urine + Escherichia coli UTI Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
108 63/M/R 1/60 + + Infected catheter + MRSA Skin infection Vancomycin, ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/9
109 63/M/L 6/24 + + Infected catheter Not done MRSA Skin infection Vancomycin, ciprofloxacin No No 6/12
110 52/M/L DM, renal failure HM + Phanerochaete chrysosporium Skin infection Voriconazole Yes No CF
111 45/M/R DM, renal failure PL + Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Cloxacillin Yes Yes NPL
112 47/M/R Alcoholic liver disease on steroid 6/12 + Not done Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Cloxacillin No No 6/9
113 47/M/L Alcoholic liver disease on steroid 6/12 + Not done Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Cloxacillin No No 6/9
114 58/M/L DM PL + + Infected catheter + MRSA Genital infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes HM
115 67/F/R 6/36 + Urine + Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Cefuroxime Yes Yes CF
116 48/M/L DM HM Not done Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/18
117 78/F/L CF + Staphylococcus coagulase -ve Ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime Yes Yes 3/60
118 61/F/L DM PL + Urine Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Ciprofloxacin, meropenem Yes Yes CF
119 55/F/L DM 3/60 + + Sputum Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Ceftazidime Yes Yes 6/12
120 55/M/L PL + + Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole Yes No NPL
121 60/M/R DM PL + + Infected catheter + Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Cloxacillin, ceftazidime Yes No HM
122 60/M/L DM PL + + Infected catheter + Staphylococcus aureus Skin infection Cloxacillin, ceftazidime Yes Yes HM
123 40/F/R DM/liver cirrhosis, myelodysplastic syndrome 6/18 + + Infected catheter Klebsiella pneumonia Lung infection Cefuroxime, piperacillin-tazobactam Yes Yes CF
124 32/F/L DM 6/60 + Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Cefuroxime Yes No 6/12
125 34/F/L DM HM + Urine + Candida albicans Amphoterin Yes Yes 6/18
126 57/F/R DM PL + Klebsiella pneumonia AGE Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes NAV
127 48/M/R DM PL DFU Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime Yes No NPL
128 65/F/R DM 1/60 + Urine Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Ciprofloxacin Yes No 6/60
129 65/F/R DM, renal failure HM Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
130 72/F/L DM HM + Urine Escherichia coli UTI Ciprofloxacin, trimethoprime, sulphamethoxazole Yes No NPL
131 55/F/R DM HM + Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Ceftriaxone Yes Yes HM
132 67/M/R Adenocarcinoma of lung and colon HM Infected catheter Fluconazole, voriconazole Yes Yes NPL
133 68/F/L DM, renal failure CF + Elizabethkingia meningocepticum Infected catheter Ceftazidime, cefazolin, vancomycin Yes No CF
134 68/F/R DM, renal failure 6/24 + Elizabethkingia meningocepticum Infected catheter Ceftazidime, cefazolin, vancomycin Yes No 6/12
135 61/F/L DM, renal failure HM + Staphylococcus aureus Infected catheter Cloxacillin Yes No 6/36
136 44/M/L DM PL + + Liver + Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Ceftazidime, imipenem Yes No NPL
137 65/M/L DM, chronic cystitis CF + Urine Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes CF
138 59/F/L DM, renal Failure HM Skin infection Ciprofloxacin Yes Yes 6/18
139 67/F/L Hepatolithiasis PL + + Liver Klebsiella pneumonia HPB infection Ciprofloxacin, imipenem Yes No NPL
140 76/M/R DM CF + Urine Candida albicans UTI Fluconazole Yes Yes 6/9
141 76/M/L DM CF + Urine Candida albicans UTI Fluconazole Yes Yes 6/24
142 38/F/R HM + Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole Yes Yes HM
143 69/M/L DM HM + + Urine + Klebsiella pneumonia UTI Cefepime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid Yes Yes 1/60
  1. Abbreviation: IVT intravitreal, abk antibiotic, DM diabetes mellitus, NAV not available, UTI urinary tract infection, IE infective endocarditis, HPB hepatobiliary, DFU diabetic foot ulcer, AGE acute gastroenteritis, MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, CF counting finger, HM hand movement, PL perception of light, NPL non-perception of light