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Table 3 Features of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) commonly associated with non-infectious uveitis

From: An update on inflammatory choroidal neovascularization: epidemiology, multimodal imaging, and management

  Multifocal choroiditis [74, 146, 147] Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) [74, 146] Serpiginous choroiditis [148,149,150] Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) [151,152,153]
Prevalence 33–50% cases 76–100% cases 10–25% cases 9–15%
Location of CNV Associated with inflammatory lesions in the subfoveal or extrafoveal region Highly focal; associated with inflammatory lesions in the macula CNV is located near chorioretinal lesions in peripapillary, subfoveal, or extrafoveal areas Usually extrafoveal; can be subfoveal and associated with chorioretinal scar
Morphology of CNV CNV appear as subretinal elevations and subretinal fluid with or without associated hemorrhage, closely resembling inflammatory lesions CNV appear as subretinal elevations and subretinal fluid with or without hemorrhage, closely resembling inflammatory lesions CNV lesions are deep with associated chorioretinal atrophy, subretinal fibrosis, and pigment clumping CNV lesions are deep, associated with subretinal or intraretinal fluid, with hemorrhage and exudation.
Associated inflammatory lesions Multifocal choroiditis present with minimal vitreous inflammation with multiple punched-out, white-yellow lesions (50–200 μm) in the peripapillary, mid-peripheral, and anteriorly to the equator The lesions are characterized by multiple, small (50–300 μm in diameter), yellow or white, opaque, round lesions scattered throughout the posterior pole, rarely extending to mid-periphery; absence of vitritis Active lesions appear as gray-white lesions that progress in a geographic manner in the posterior fundus VKH presents with granulomatous anterior uveitis, posterior synechiae, iris nodules, and stromal atrophy; multiple pockets of subretinal fluid with exudative detachments; sunset glow fundus in the chronic disease.