Longitudinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography changes in eyes with intraocular lymphoma
© Jang et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 20 July 2013
Accepted: 29 August 2013
Published: 8 September 2013
Cases of patients with primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) were retrospectively analyzed to describe the longitudinal intra-retinal morphological changes in PIOL as visualized on images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
In a retrospective case series, Heidelberg Spectralis SD-OCT images obtained in the longitudinal evaluation of patients with biopsy-proven PIOL were analyzed and assessed. The images were graded for the presence of macular edema (ME), pigment epithelial detachment (PED), subretinal fluid (SRF), and hyperreflective signals. SD-OCT scans of five eyes from five patients were assessed. Patients showed signs of inflammation, such as ME and SRF, which were resolved with treatments in some cases. Hyperreflective signals were found in all eyes in the form of nodules or bands across the retina, with the highest frequency of appearance in the ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, photoreceptor layer, and retinal pigment epithelium; such signals increased with the progression of PIOL.
SD-OCT may be employed to monitor the progression of PIOL. Hyperreflective signals on OCT may correspond with increase in disease activities, along with other findings such as ME, PED, and SRF.
KeywordsSpectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) Primary intraocular lymphoma Primary retinal lymphoma Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma
Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is a subset of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). It is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that usually involves the retina and vitreous, mainly consisting of large B-cells. PIOL represents about 1% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 1% of intracranial tumors, and less than 1% of intraocular tumors . It has been reported that 15% to 25% of PCNSL cases involve the eye; these may initially be present without concurrent central nervous system (CNS) involvement [2, 3].
PIOL is the most common neoplastic disease that masquerades chronic posterior uveitis . When misdiagnosed as uveitis, patients may initially respond to corticosteroids, which further contributes to the diagnostic challenge . PIOL may also manifest in the anterior segment as keratic precipitates, cells, and flare . The identification of atypical lymphoid cells in the eye is necessary to make the diagnosis [6, 7].
Assessment of PIOL using ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography has been reported with a common finding of intra- and sub-RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) infiltrates [2, 8]. Additionally, a few case reports of PIOL have utilized spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to capture high-resolution cross sections of the retina [9–11]. However, the common patterns of SD-OCT changes in PIOL have not been established given the rarity of the disease and the relative novelty of SD-OCT imaging. To the best of our knowledge, progression of PIOL utilizing SD-OCT has been reported in one case report . We herein report patterns of anatomic changes as visualized by SD-OCT in five patients of PIOL over a period of 161 ± 61 days.
An informed written consent that was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Johns Hopkins University was obtained from all patients included in the study.
Patients with biopsy-proven PIOL who had been managed by one of the authors (QDN) at the Wilmer Eye Institute and followed using SD-OCT were included in the index retrospective case series. Patients either received systemic high-dose methotrexate (MTX), systemic rituximab (RTX), and/or intravitreal MTX and RTX.
For each patient, 30° SD-OCT scans of the macula from three to four visits were analyzed carefully in the Retinal Imaging Research and Reading Center (RIRRC) at Wilmer, including scans at the first presentation of symptoms, a visit before treatment, and a post-treatment visit when available. The first visit was considered as the baseline and was labeled Day 0. A senior grader selected multiple cross sections that were representative of the retinal changes in each case. These selected sections were evaluated by two independent graders in the RIRRC who were informed of the patients' diagnosis but masked to the visits that were graded. Presence of hyperreflective signals, macular edema (ME), pigment epithelial detachment (PED), subretinal fluid (SRF), and any other abnormalities were assessed. The locations of hyperreflective signals were marked as being present in the following layers: nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor layer (PRL), RPE, and choroid. Any disagreement between the two graders was decided by a third senior grader. The TruTrack™ active eye tracking system in Spectralis SD-OCT allowed for comparative analysis of the same cross sections between the visits.
Results and discussion
Demographics of study subjects
Time of observation (days)
Large B-cell lymphoma
Large B-cell lymphoma
Large B-cell lymphoma
Large B-cell lymphoma
Large B-cell lymphoma
Clinical findings over the observation period
Slit lamp and fundus examination findings
Anterior chamber cells and flare, vitreous cells and debris, macular edema
Vitreous cells and condensation, yellowish chorioretinal lesions
Keratic precipitates, anterior chamber cells and flare, vitreous cells, yellowish chorioretinal lesions
Vitreous cells, macular edema, yellowish chorioretinal lesions
Anterior chamber flare, vitreous haze, layered hypopyon
Clinical description of PIOL manifestation
In the following descriptions and corresponding figures, Day 0 corresponds to the first visit with symptoms and signs of PIOL in the study eye, with the exception of patient 5. Patient 5 had recurring PIOL, and Day 0 corresponds to the first visit of the latest recurrence.
Patient 1 initially presented with severe vitreous inflammation affecting the vision in the right eye, which subsided with anti-inflammatory drugs in the follow-up visits. ME was present throughout the visits. He had had large B-cell intraocular lymphoma in the left eye in the past, which had not been documented with SD-OCT. Repeated evaluations of the CNS during the manifestation in the right eye did not reveal active CNS lymphoma. The patient was treated with systemic MTX and RTX. On SD-OCT, hyperreflective signals were found in the inner and outer retina, as well as RPE. SRF developed with disease progression (Figure 2).
Patient 2 had a history of PCNSL and presented with vitreous cells and a large vitreous condensation in the left eye. During the follow-up visit, sheets of vitreous cells became more pronounced, which is commonly observed in intraocular lymphoma . The diagnosis of PIOL was confirmed by a biopsy of the vitreous obtained via a vitrectomy, and the patient was treated systemically with MTX and RTX. The patient also has bilateral age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PED from AMD, as well as hyperreflective signals in the retina and RPE were found on SD-OCT (Figure 3).
Patient 3 presented with mutton fat keratic precipitates, anterior chamber cells and flare, and clumps of vitreous cells in the left eye. Clinical findings and the patient's history of PCNSL were indicative of PIOL, as confirmed by vitrectomy. Subretinal infiltrates were followed 5 months after baseline evaluation. In addition to systemic MTX and RTX, the patient also received one injection of intravitreal MTX due to disease progression. SD-OCT initially revealed few hyperreflective signals in nodular shape, consistent with infiltrates in the retina and RPE. With disease progression, RPE disruption and hyperreflective bands in the retina emerged (Figure 4). The case report of this patient by Liu et al. has been published .
Patient 4 was referred to the Wilmer Eye Institute after being treated with topical steroids for persistent ME. The patient had a history of PCNSL. On examination, the patient had sheets of vitreous cells in the right eye. Following diagnostic vitrectomy which revealed the presence of lymphomatous cells, systemic MTX and RTX were given. SD-OCT revealed ME, PED, and hyperreflective signals, especially notable at the RPE. Number of layers with hyperreflective dots decreased following vitrectomy (Figure 5).
Patient 5 had recurrent bilateral biopsy-proven PIOL and PCNSL for 5 years. Each recurrence had been effectively treated with systemic MTX and RTX. The recurrences were marked by keratic precipitates, hypopyon, vitreous haze, and/or ME. In the latest recurrence, the patient presented with mild anterior chamber flare and mild vitreous haze in the left eye. During the follow-up visits, layered hypopyon was present. The patient was treated with systemic MTX and RTX. SD-OCT findings included thickened OPL and hyperreflective signals in the inner and outer retina, as well as RPE (Figure 6).
Advancements in imaging technology in general and OCT in particular during the past decade have allowed for non-invasive identification of anatomical changes very much at the tissue level. In this study, we aimed to characterize the longitudinal changes in the retina with PIOL visualized by SD-OCT during the course of the disease. Previously reported OCT findings in PIOL include ME, hyperreflective materials at the RPE and outer retina, RPE disruption, and subretinal deposits which are similar to the abnormalities found in our study [8, 11]. In particular, SD-OCT images of patient 4 were notably similar to those of the one case reported by Liang et al. with hyperreflective nodules at the RPE . Our most common findings are abnormal hyperreflective signals that appeared as dots, nodules, and bands, with the highest frequency of appearance in GCL, IPL, PRL, and RPE as shown in Figure 1. Although hyperreflectivity in the inner retina was not discussed in previous OCT studies of PIOL, we identified hyperreflective signals in the inner retina of all patients with PIOL, which is most clearly illustrated in Figure 2. Chan et al. have shown that in murine models of PIOL, lymphoma cells inoculated in the vitreous can migrate and gather between RPE and retina, suggesting that lymphoma cells can be found across the retina .
Despite the consistent findings of hyperreflective signals on SD-OCT images of patients with PIOL that have been reported in the literature, the specific nature of the hyperreflective material seen within the inner and outer retina is still to be evaluated, and becomes a challenge without direct supporting histopathological evidence. Additionally, hyperreflective signals can be overestimated when inherent noise and vitreous haze are present, and careful distinction should be made during the grading and evaluating process. Moreover, hyperreflective foci have been reported in numerous diseases, such as AMD and diabetic macular edema, and should be excluded as sources of findings seen in PIOL patients [14–16]. In the case of patient 3, the changes in SD-OCT with the progression of PIOL evidently appeared as hyperreflective bands in INL, OPL, and ONL with corresponding chorioretinal changes seen in fundus examinations. Patient 5 had an increase in activity of disease noted in the anterior segment that corresponded to an increase in hyperreflective lesions noted in the retina (Figure 6). On the other hand, patient 2 has bilateral AMD; hyperreflective nodules at the RPE level may have indicated lymphoma infiltrates or equally may have been representative of hyperreflective lesions that have been reported in intermediate AMD (Figure 3) . Therefore, hyperreflective changes in SD-OCT should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.
Submacular infiltration of lymphoma cells may be visualized by high-resolution SD-OCT but should be differentiated from noise on a suboptimal quality scan or hyperreflective signals due to other pathologies. Our findings indicate that hyperreflective signals increased with disease activity, suggesting that SD-OCT may be employed to monitor the progression of PIOL, which may influence decision making in the management of the disease.
QDN is the recipient of the Physician Scientist Award from the Research to Prevent Blindness. DF is the recipient of the award from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. DVD is the recipient of the Heed Ophthalmic Foundation Clinician-Scientist Award. YJS is the Director of the Ocular Imaging Research and Reading Center at the Stanley M. Truhlsen Eye Institute. RS, MH, HL and MGB are postdoctoral research fellows at the Retinal Imaging Research and Reading Center.
primary intraocular lymphoma
primary central nervous system lymphoma
spectral domain optical coherence tomography
pigment epithelial detachment
age-related macular degeneration
nerve fiber layer
ganglion cell layer
inner plexiform layer
inner nuclear layer
outer plexiform layer
outer nuclear layer
retinal pigment epithelium.
- Bardenstein DS: Intraocular lymphoma. Cancer Control 1998,5(4):317–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi JY, Kafkala C, Foster CS: Primary intraocular lymphoma: a review. Semin Ophthalmol 2006,21(3):125–133. doi:10.1080/08820530500350498 10.1080/08820530500350498PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davis JL: Diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2004,12(1):7–16. 10.1076/ocii.184.108.40.206072PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rothova A, Ooijman F, Kerkhoff F, Van Der Lelij A, Lokhorst HM: Uveitis masquerade syndromes. Ophthalmology 2001,108(2):386–399. 10.1016/S0161-6420(00)00499-1PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Velez G, de Smet MD, Whitcup SM, Robinson M, Nussenblatt RB, Chan CC: Iris involvement in primary intraocular lymphoma: report of two cases and review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol 2000,44(6):518–526. 10.1016/S0039-6257(00)00118-1PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sen HN, Bodaghi B, Hoang PL, Nussenblatt R: Primary intraocular lymphoma: diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2009,17(3):133–141. doi:10.1080/09273940903108544 10.1080/09273940903108544PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jahnke K, Thiel E, Abrey LE, Neuwelt EA, Korfel A: Diagnosis and management of primary intraocular lymphoma: an update. Clin Ophthalmol 2007,1(3):247–258.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fardeau C, Lee CP, Merle-Beral H, Cassoux N, Bodaghi B, Davi F, Lehoang P: Retinal fluorescein, indocyanine green angiography, and optic coherence tomography in non-Hodgkin primary intraocular lymphoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2009,147(5):886–894. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2008.12.025, 894 e881 10.1016/j.ajo.2008.12.025PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Forooghian F, Merkur AB, White VA, Shen D, Chan CC: High-definition optical coherence tomography features of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2011, 42: e97-e99. doi:10.3928/15428877–20110922–02, OnlinePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liang F, Barale PO, Hoang Xuan K, Paques M, Sahel JA: Subretinal lymphomatous infiltration in primary intraocular lymphoma revealed by optical coherence tomography. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie 2011,249(9):1425–1427. doi:10.1007/s00417–011–1669-x 10.1007/s00417-011-1669-xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu TY, Ibrahim M, Bittencourt M, Sepah YJ, Do DV, Nguyen QD: Retinal optical coherence tomography manifestations of intraocular lymphoma. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2012,2(4):215–218. doi:10.1007/s12348–012–0072-z 10.1007/s12348-012-0072-zPubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Faia LJ, Chan CC: Primary intraocular lymphoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2009,133(8):1228–1232. doi:10.1043/1543–2165–133.8.1228PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chan CC, Fischette M, Shen D, Mahesh SP, Nussenblatt RB, Hochman J: Murine model of primary intraocular lymphoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005,46(2):415–419. doi:10.1167/iovs.04–0869 10.1167/iovs.04-0869PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Folgar FA, Chow JH, Farsiu S, Wong WT, Schuman SG, O'Connell RV, Winter KP, Chew EY, Hwang TS, Srivastava SK, Harrington MW, Clemons TE, Toth CA: Spatial correlation between hyperpigmentary changes on color fundus photography and hyperreflective foci on SDOCT in intermediate AMD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012,53(8):4626–4633. doi:10.1167/iovs.12–9813 10.1167/iovs.12-9813PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ota M, Nishijima K, Sakamoto A, Murakami T, Takayama K, Horii T, Yoshimura N: Optical coherence tomographic evaluation of foveal hard exudates in patients with diabetic maculopathy accompanying macular detachment. Ophthalmology 2010,117(10):1996–2002. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.06.019 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.06.019PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bolz M, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Deak G, Mylonas G, Kriechbaum K, Scholda C: Optical coherence tomographic hyperreflective foci: a morphologic sign of lipid extravasation in diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 2009,116(5):914–920. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.12.039 10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.12.039PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.